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      1 /*	$NetBSD: init_main.c,v 1.489 2017/01/05 03:22:20 pgoyette Exp $	*/
      2 
      3 /*-
      4  * Copyright (c) 2008, 2009 The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.
      5  * All rights reserved.
      6  *
      7  * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
      8  * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
      9  * are met:
     10  * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
     11  *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
     12  * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
     13  *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
     14  *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
     15  *
     16  * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE NETBSD FOUNDATION, INC. AND CONTRIBUTORS
     17  * ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
     18  * TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
     19  * PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE FOUNDATION OR CONTRIBUTORS
     20  * BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
     21  * CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
     22  * SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
     23  * INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
     24  * CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
     25  * ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
     26  * POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
     27  */
     28 
     29 /*
     30  * Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993
     31  *	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
     32  * (c) UNIX System Laboratories, Inc.
     33  * All or some portions of this file are derived from material licensed
     34  * to the University of California by American Telephone and Telegraph
     35  * Co. or Unix System Laboratories, Inc. and are reproduced herein with
     36  * the permission of UNIX System Laboratories, Inc.
     37  *
     38  * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
     39  * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
     40  * are met:
     41  * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
     42  *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
     43  * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
     44  *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
     45  *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
     46  * 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
     47  *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
     48  *    without specific prior written permission.
     49  *
     50  * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
     51  * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
     52  * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
     53  * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
     54  * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
     55  * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
     56  * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
     57  * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
     58  * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
     59  * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
     60  * SUCH DAMAGE.
     61  *
     62  *	@(#)init_main.c	8.16 (Berkeley) 5/14/95
     63  */
     64 
     65 /*
     66  * Copyright (c) 1995 Christopher G. Demetriou.  All rights reserved.
     67  *
     68  * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
     69  * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
     70  * are met:
     71  * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
     72  *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
     73  * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
     74  *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
     75  *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
     76  * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
     77  *    must display the following acknowledgement:
     78  *	This product includes software developed by the University of
     79  *	California, Berkeley and its contributors.
     80  * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
     81  *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
     82  *    without specific prior written permission.
     83  *
     84  * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
     85  * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
     86  * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
     87  * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
     88  * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
     89  * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
     90  * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
     91  * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
     92  * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
     93  * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
     94  * SUCH DAMAGE.
     95  *
     96  *	@(#)init_main.c	8.16 (Berkeley) 5/14/95
     97  */
     98 
     99 #include <sys/cdefs.h>
    100 __KERNEL_RCSID(0, "$NetBSD: init_main.c,v 1.489 2017/01/05 03:22:20 pgoyette Exp $");
    101 
    102 #include "opt_ddb.h"
    103 #include "opt_inet.h"
    104 #include "opt_ipsec.h"
    105 #include "opt_modular.h"
    106 #include "opt_ntp.h"
    107 #include "opt_pipe.h"
    108 #include "opt_syscall_debug.h"
    109 #include "opt_sysv.h"
    110 #include "opt_fileassoc.h"
    111 #include "opt_ktrace.h"
    112 #include "opt_pax.h"
    113 #include "opt_compat_netbsd.h"
    114 #include "opt_wapbl.h"
    115 #include "opt_ptrace.h"
    116 #include "opt_rnd_printf.h"
    117 #include "opt_splash.h"
    118 #include "opt_kernhist.h"
    119 
    120 #if defined(SPLASHSCREEN) && defined(makeoptions_SPLASHSCREEN_IMAGE)
    121 extern void *_binary_splash_image_start;
    122 extern void *_binary_splash_image_end;
    123 #endif
    124 
    125 #include "ksyms.h"
    126 
    127 #include "veriexec.h"
    128 
    129 #include <sys/param.h>
    130 #include <sys/acct.h>
    131 #include <sys/filedesc.h>
    132 #include <sys/file.h>
    133 #include <sys/errno.h>
    134 #include <sys/callout.h>
    135 #include <sys/cpu.h>
    136 #include <sys/cpufreq.h>
    137 #include <sys/spldebug.h>
    138 #include <sys/kernel.h>
    139 #include <sys/mount.h>
    140 #include <sys/proc.h>
    141 #include <sys/kthread.h>
    142 #include <sys/resourcevar.h>
    143 #include <sys/signalvar.h>
    144 #include <sys/systm.h>
    145 #include <sys/vnode.h>
    146 #include <sys/fstrans.h>
    147 #include <sys/tty.h>
    148 #include <sys/conf.h>
    149 #include <sys/disklabel.h>
    150 #include <sys/buf.h>
    151 #include <sys/device.h>
    152 #include <sys/exec.h>
    153 #include <sys/socketvar.h>
    154 #include <sys/protosw.h>
    155 #include <sys/percpu.h>
    156 #include <sys/pserialize.h>
    157 #include <sys/pset.h>
    158 #include <sys/sysctl.h>
    159 #include <sys/reboot.h>
    160 #include <sys/event.h>
    161 #include <sys/mbuf.h>
    162 #include <sys/sched.h>
    163 #include <sys/sleepq.h>
    164 #include <sys/ipi.h>
    165 #include <sys/iostat.h>
    166 #include <sys/vmem.h>
    167 #include <sys/uuid.h>
    168 #include <sys/extent.h>
    169 #include <sys/disk.h>
    170 #include <sys/msgbuf.h>
    171 #include <sys/module.h>
    172 #include <sys/event.h>
    173 #include <sys/lockf.h>
    174 #include <sys/once.h>
    175 #include <sys/kcpuset.h>
    176 #include <sys/ksyms.h>
    177 #include <sys/uidinfo.h>
    178 #include <sys/kprintf.h>
    179 #include <sys/bufq.h>
    180 #ifdef IPSEC
    181 #include <netipsec/ipsec.h>
    182 #endif
    183 #include <sys/domain.h>
    184 #include <sys/namei.h>
    185 #include <sys/rnd.h>
    186 #include <sys/pipe.h>
    187 #if NVERIEXEC > 0
    188 #include <sys/verified_exec.h>
    189 #endif /* NVERIEXEC > 0 */
    190 #ifdef KTRACE
    191 #include <sys/ktrace.h>
    192 #endif
    193 #include <sys/kauth.h>
    194 #include <net80211/ieee80211_netbsd.h>
    195 #include <sys/cprng.h>
    196 
    197 #include <sys/syscall.h>
    198 #include <sys/syscallargs.h>
    199 
    200 #include <sys/pax.h>
    201 
    202 #include <secmodel/secmodel.h>
    203 
    204 #include <ufs/ufs/quota.h>
    205 
    206 #include <miscfs/genfs/genfs.h>
    207 #include <miscfs/specfs/specdev.h>
    208 
    209 #include <sys/cpu.h>
    210 
    211 #include <uvm/uvm.h>	/* extern struct uvm uvm */
    212 
    213 #include <dev/cons.h>
    214 #include <dev/splash/splash.h>
    215 
    216 #include <net/bpf.h>
    217 #include <net/if.h>
    218 #include <net/pfil.h>
    219 #include <net/raw_cb.h>
    220 #include <net/if_llatbl.h>
    221 
    222 #include <prop/proplib.h>
    223 
    224 #include <sys/userconf.h>
    225 
    226 extern struct lwp lwp0;
    227 extern time_t rootfstime;
    228 
    229 #ifndef curlwp
    230 struct	lwp *curlwp = &lwp0;
    231 #endif
    232 struct	proc *initproc;
    233 
    234 struct	vnode *rootvp, *swapdev_vp;
    235 int	boothowto;
    236 int	cold = 1;			/* still working on startup */
    237 struct timespec boottime;	        /* time at system startup - will only follow settime deltas */
    238 
    239 int	start_init_exec;		/* semaphore for start_init() */
    240 
    241 cprng_strong_t	*kern_cprng;
    242 
    243 static void check_console(struct lwp *l);
    244 static void start_init(void *);
    245 static void configure(void);
    246 static void configure2(void);
    247 static void configure3(void);
    248 void main(void);
    249 
    250 /*
    251  * System startup; initialize the world, create process 0, mount root
    252  * filesystem, and fork to create init and pagedaemon.  Most of the
    253  * hard work is done in the lower-level initialization routines including
    254  * startup(), which does memory initialization and autoconfiguration.
    255  */
    256 void
    257 main(void)
    258 {
    259 	struct timespec time;
    260 	struct lwp *l;
    261 	struct proc *p;
    262 	int s, error;
    263 #ifdef NVNODE_IMPLICIT
    264 	int usevnodes;
    265 #endif
    266 	CPU_INFO_ITERATOR cii;
    267 	struct cpu_info *ci;
    268 
    269 	l = &lwp0;
    270 #ifndef LWP0_CPU_INFO
    271 	l->l_cpu = curcpu();
    272 #endif
    273 	l->l_pflag |= LP_RUNNING;
    274 
    275 	/*
    276 	 * Attempt to find console and initialize
    277 	 * in case of early panic or other messages.
    278 	 */
    279 	consinit();
    280 
    281 	kernel_lock_init();
    282 	once_init();
    283 
    284 	mi_cpu_init();
    285 	kernconfig_lock_init();
    286 	kthread_sysinit();
    287 
    288 	/* Initialize the device switch tables. */
    289 	devsw_init();
    290 
    291 	/* Initialize event counters. */
    292 	evcnt_init();
    293 
    294 	uvm_init();
    295 	ubchist_init();
    296 	kcpuset_sysinit();
    297 
    298 	prop_kern_init();
    299 
    300 #if ((NKSYMS > 0) || (NDDB > 0) || (NMODULAR > 0))
    301 	ksyms_init();
    302 #endif
    303 	kprintf_init();
    304 
    305 	percpu_init();
    306 
    307 	/* Initialize lock caches. */
    308 	mutex_obj_init();
    309 	rw_obj_init();
    310 
    311 	/* Passive serialization. */
    312 	pserialize_init();
    313 
    314 	/* Initialize the extent manager. */
    315 	extent_init();
    316 
    317 	/* Do machine-dependent initialization. */
    318 	cpu_startup();
    319 
    320 	/* Initialize the sysctl subsystem. */
    321 	sysctl_init();
    322 
    323 	/* Initialize callouts, part 1. */
    324 	callout_startup();
    325 
    326 	/* Initialize the kernel authorization subsystem. */
    327 	kauth_init();
    328 
    329 	secmodel_init();
    330 
    331 	spec_init();
    332 
    333 	/*
    334 	 * Set BPF op vector.  Can't do this in bpf attach, since
    335 	 * network drivers attach before bpf.
    336 	 */
    337 	bpf_setops();
    338 
    339 	/* Start module system. */
    340 	module_init();
    341 
    342 	/*
    343 	 * Initialize the kernel authorization subsystem and start the
    344 	 * default security model, if any. We need to do this early
    345 	 * enough so that subsystems relying on any of the aforementioned
    346 	 * can work properly. Since the security model may dictate the
    347 	 * credential inheritance policy, it is needed at least before
    348 	 * any process is created, specifically proc0.
    349 	 */
    350 	module_init_class(MODULE_CLASS_SECMODEL);
    351 
    352 	/* Initialize the buffer cache */
    353 	bufinit();
    354 	biohist_init();
    355 
    356 #ifdef KERNHIST
    357 	sysctl_kernhist_init();
    358 #endif
    359 
    360 
    361 #if defined(SPLASHSCREEN) && defined(SPLASHSCREEN_IMAGE)
    362 	size_t splash_size = (&_binary_splash_image_end -
    363 	    &_binary_splash_image_start) * sizeof(void *);
    364 	splash_setimage(&_binary_splash_image_start, splash_size);
    365 #endif
    366 
    367 	/* Initialize sockets. */
    368 	soinit();
    369 
    370 	/*
    371 	 * The following things must be done before autoconfiguration.
    372 	 */
    373 	rnd_init();		/* initialize entropy pool */
    374 
    375 	cprng_init();		/* initialize cryptographic PRNG */
    376 
    377 	/* Initialize process and pgrp structures. */
    378 	procinit();
    379 	lwpinit();
    380 
    381 	/* Initialize signal-related data structures. */
    382 	signal_init();
    383 
    384 	/* Initialize resource management. */
    385 	resource_init();
    386 
    387 	/* Create process 0. */
    388 	proc0_init();
    389 	lwp0_init();
    390 
    391 	/* Disable preemption during boot. */
    392 	kpreempt_disable();
    393 
    394 	/* Initialize the UID hash table. */
    395 	uid_init();
    396 
    397 	/* Charge root for one process. */
    398 	(void)chgproccnt(0, 1);
    399 
    400 	/* Initialize timekeeping. */
    401 	time_init();
    402 
    403 	/* Initialize the run queues, turnstiles and sleep queues. */
    404 	sched_rqinit();
    405 	turnstile_init();
    406 	sleeptab_init(&sleeptab);
    407 
    408 	sched_init();
    409 
    410 	/* Initialize processor-sets */
    411 	psets_init();
    412 
    413 	/* Initialize cpufreq(9) */
    414 	cpufreq_init();
    415 
    416 	/* MI initialization of the boot cpu */
    417 	error = mi_cpu_attach(curcpu());
    418 	KASSERT(error == 0);
    419 
    420 	/* Initialize timekeeping, part 2. */
    421 	time_init2();
    422 
    423 	/*
    424 	 * Initialize mbuf's.  Do this now because we might attempt to
    425 	 * allocate mbufs or mbuf clusters during autoconfiguration.
    426 	 */
    427 	mbinit();
    428 
    429 	/* Initialize I/O statistics. */
    430 	iostat_init();
    431 
    432 	/* Initialize the log device. */
    433 	loginit();
    434 
    435 	/* Second part of module system initialization. */
    436 	module_start_unload_thread();
    437 
    438 	/* Initialize the file systems. */
    439 #ifdef NVNODE_IMPLICIT
    440 	/*
    441 	 * If maximum number of vnodes in namei vnode cache is not explicitly
    442 	 * defined in kernel config, adjust the number such as we use roughly
    443 	 * 10% of memory for vnodes and associated data structures in the
    444 	 * assumed worst case.  Do not provide fewer than NVNODE vnodes.
    445 	 */
    446 	usevnodes = calc_cache_size(vmem_size(kmem_arena, VMEM_FREE|VMEM_ALLOC),
    447 	    10, VNODE_KMEM_MAXPCT) / VNODE_COST;
    448 	if (usevnodes > desiredvnodes)
    449 		desiredvnodes = usevnodes;
    450 #endif
    451 	vfsinit();
    452 	lf_init();
    453 
    454 	/* Initialize fstrans. */
    455 	fstrans_init();
    456 
    457 	/* Initialize the file descriptor system. */
    458 	fd_sys_init();
    459 
    460 	/* Initialize cwd structures */
    461 	cwd_sys_init();
    462 
    463 	/* Initialize kqueue. */
    464 	kqueue_init();
    465 
    466 	inittimecounter();
    467 	ntp_init();
    468 
    469 	/* Initialize tty subsystem. */
    470 	tty_init();
    471 	ttyldisc_init();
    472 
    473 	/* Initialize the buffer cache, part 2. */
    474 	bufinit2();
    475 
    476 	/* Initialize the disk wedge subsystem. */
    477 	dkwedge_init();
    478 
    479 	/* Initialize the kernel strong PRNG. */
    480 	kern_cprng = cprng_strong_create("kernel", IPL_VM,
    481 					 CPRNG_INIT_ANY|CPRNG_REKEY_ANY);
    482 
    483 	/* Initialize pfil */
    484 	pfil_init();
    485 
    486 	/* Initialize interfaces. */
    487 	ifinit1();
    488 
    489 	spldebug_start();
    490 
    491 	/* Initialize sockets thread(s) */
    492 	soinit1();
    493 
    494 	/*
    495 	 * Initialize the bufq strategy sub-system and any built-in
    496 	 * strategy modules - they may be needed by some devices during
    497 	 * auto-configuration
    498 	 */
    499 	bufq_init();
    500 	module_init_class(MODULE_CLASS_BUFQ);
    501 
    502 	/* Configure the system hardware.  This will enable interrupts. */
    503 	configure();
    504 
    505 	/* Once all CPUs are detected, initialize the per-CPU cprng_fast.  */
    506 	cprng_fast_init();
    507 
    508 	ssp_init();
    509 
    510 	ubc_init();		/* must be after autoconfig */
    511 
    512 	mm_init();
    513 
    514 	configure2();
    515 
    516 	ipi_sysinit();
    517 
    518 	/* Now timer is working.  Enable preemption. */
    519 	kpreempt_enable();
    520 
    521 	/* Get the threads going and into any sleeps before continuing. */
    522 	yield();
    523 
    524 	/* Enable deferred processing of RNG samples */
    525 	rnd_init_softint();
    526 
    527 #ifdef RND_PRINTF
    528 	/* Enable periodic injection of console output into entropy pool */
    529 	kprintf_init_callout();
    530 #endif
    531 
    532 	vmem_rehash_start();	/* must be before exec_init */
    533 
    534 	/* Initialize exec structures */
    535 	exec_init(1);		/* seminit calls exithook_establish() */
    536 
    537 #if NVERIEXEC > 0
    538 	/*
    539 	 * Initialise the Veriexec subsystem.
    540 	 */
    541 	veriexec_init();
    542 #endif /* NVERIEXEC > 0 */
    543 
    544 	pax_init();
    545 
    546 #ifdef	IPSEC
    547 	/* Attach network crypto subsystem */
    548 	ipsec_attach();
    549 #endif
    550 
    551 	/*
    552 	 * Initialize protocols.  Block reception of incoming packets
    553 	 * until everything is ready.
    554 	 */
    555 	s = splnet();
    556 	ifinit();
    557 #if defined(INET) || defined(INET6)
    558 	lltableinit();
    559 #endif
    560 	domaininit(true);
    561 	if_attachdomain();
    562 	splx(s);
    563 
    564 #ifdef GPROF
    565 	/* Initialize kernel profiling. */
    566 	kmstartup();
    567 #endif
    568 
    569 	/* Initialize system accounting. */
    570 	acct_init();
    571 
    572 #ifndef PIPE_SOCKETPAIR
    573 	/* Initialize pipes. */
    574 	pipe_init();
    575 #endif
    576 
    577 #ifdef KTRACE
    578 	/* Initialize ktrace. */
    579 	ktrinit();
    580 #endif
    581 
    582 	machdep_init();
    583 
    584 	procinit_sysctl();
    585 
    586 	scdebug_init();
    587 
    588 	/*
    589 	 * Create process 1 (init(8)).  We do this now, as Unix has
    590 	 * historically had init be process 1, and changing this would
    591 	 * probably upset a lot of people.
    592 	 *
    593 	 * Note that process 1 won't immediately exec init(8), but will
    594 	 * wait for us to inform it that the root file system has been
    595 	 * mounted.
    596 	 */
    597 	if (fork1(l, 0, SIGCHLD, NULL, 0, start_init, NULL, NULL, &initproc))
    598 		panic("fork init");
    599 
    600 	/*
    601 	 * Load any remaining builtin modules, and hand back temporary
    602 	 * storage to the VM system.  Then require force when loading any
    603 	 * remaining un-init'ed built-in modules to avoid later surprises.
    604 	 */
    605 	module_init_class(MODULE_CLASS_ANY);
    606 	module_builtin_require_force();
    607 
    608 	/*
    609 	 * Finalize configuration now that all real devices have been
    610 	 * found.  This needs to be done before the root device is
    611 	 * selected, since finalization may create the root device.
    612 	 */
    613 	config_finalize();
    614 
    615 	sysctl_finalize();
    616 
    617 	/*
    618 	 * Now that autoconfiguration has completed, we can determine
    619 	 * the root and dump devices.
    620 	 */
    621 	cpu_rootconf();
    622 	cpu_dumpconf();
    623 
    624 	/* Mount the root file system. */
    625 	do {
    626 		domountroothook(root_device);
    627 		if ((error = vfs_mountroot())) {
    628 			printf("cannot mount root, error = %d\n", error);
    629 			boothowto |= RB_ASKNAME;
    630 			setroot(root_device,
    631 			    (rootdev != NODEV) ? DISKPART(rootdev) : 0);
    632 		}
    633 	} while (error != 0);
    634 	mountroothook_destroy();
    635 
    636 	configure3();
    637 
    638 	/*
    639 	 * Initialise the time-of-day clock, passing the time recorded
    640 	 * in the root filesystem (if any) for use by systems that
    641 	 * don't have a non-volatile time-of-day device.
    642 	 */
    643 	inittodr(rootfstime);
    644 
    645 	/*
    646 	 * Now can look at time, having had a chance to verify the time
    647 	 * from the file system.  Reset l->l_rtime as it may have been
    648 	 * munched in mi_switch() after the time got set.
    649 	 */
    650 	getnanotime(&time);
    651 	boottime = time;
    652 
    653 	mutex_enter(proc_lock);
    654 	LIST_FOREACH(p, &allproc, p_list) {
    655 		KASSERT((p->p_flag & PK_MARKER) == 0);
    656 		mutex_enter(p->p_lock);
    657 		TIMESPEC_TO_TIMEVAL(&p->p_stats->p_start, &time);
    658 		LIST_FOREACH(l, &p->p_lwps, l_sibling) {
    659 			lwp_lock(l);
    660 			memset(&l->l_rtime, 0, sizeof(l->l_rtime));
    661 			lwp_unlock(l);
    662 		}
    663 		mutex_exit(p->p_lock);
    664 	}
    665 	mutex_exit(proc_lock);
    666 	binuptime(&curlwp->l_stime);
    667 
    668 	for (CPU_INFO_FOREACH(cii, ci)) {
    669 		ci->ci_schedstate.spc_lastmod = time_second;
    670 	}
    671 
    672 	/* Create the pageout daemon kernel thread. */
    673 	uvm_swap_init();
    674 	if (kthread_create(PRI_PGDAEMON, KTHREAD_MPSAFE, NULL, uvm_pageout,
    675 	    NULL, NULL, "pgdaemon"))
    676 		panic("fork pagedaemon");
    677 
    678 	/* Create the filesystem syncer kernel thread. */
    679 	if (kthread_create(PRI_IOFLUSH, KTHREAD_MPSAFE, NULL, sched_sync,
    680 	    NULL, NULL, "ioflush"))
    681 		panic("fork syncer");
    682 
    683 	/* Create the aiodone daemon kernel thread. */
    684 	if (workqueue_create(&uvm.aiodone_queue, "aiodoned",
    685 	    uvm_aiodone_worker, NULL, PRI_VM, IPL_NONE, WQ_MPSAFE))
    686 		panic("fork aiodoned");
    687 
    688 	/* Wait for final configure threads to complete. */
    689 	config_finalize_mountroot();
    690 
    691 	/*
    692 	 * Okay, now we can let init(8) exec!  It's off to userland!
    693 	 */
    694 	mutex_enter(proc_lock);
    695 	start_init_exec = 1;
    696 	cv_broadcast(&lbolt);
    697 	mutex_exit(proc_lock);
    698 
    699 	/* The scheduler is an infinite loop. */
    700 	uvm_scheduler();
    701 	/* NOTREACHED */
    702 }
    703 
    704 /*
    705  * Configure the system's hardware.
    706  */
    707 static void
    708 configure(void)
    709 {
    710 
    711 	/* Initialize autoconf data structures. */
    712 	config_init_mi();
    713 	/*
    714 	 * XXX
    715 	 * callout_setfunc() requires mutex(9) so it can't be in config_init()
    716 	 * on amiga and atari which use config_init() and autoconf(9) fucntions
    717 	 * to initialize console devices.
    718 	 */
    719 	config_twiddle_init();
    720 
    721 	pmf_init();
    722 
    723 	/* Initialize driver modules */
    724 	module_init_class(MODULE_CLASS_DRIVER);
    725 
    726 	userconf_init();
    727 	if (boothowto & RB_USERCONF)
    728 		userconf_prompt();
    729 
    730 	if ((boothowto & (AB_SILENT|AB_VERBOSE)) == AB_SILENT) {
    731 		printf_nolog("Detecting hardware...");
    732 	}
    733 
    734 	/*
    735 	 * Do the machine-dependent portion of autoconfiguration.  This
    736 	 * sets the configuration machinery here in motion by "finding"
    737 	 * the root bus.  When this function returns, we expect interrupts
    738 	 * to be enabled.
    739 	 */
    740 	cpu_configure();
    741 }
    742 
    743 static void
    744 configure2(void)
    745 {
    746 	CPU_INFO_ITERATOR cii;
    747 	struct cpu_info *ci;
    748 	int s;
    749 
    750 	/*
    751 	 * Now that we've found all the hardware, start the real time
    752 	 * and statistics clocks.
    753 	 */
    754 	initclocks();
    755 
    756 	cold = 0;	/* clocks are running, we're warm now! */
    757 	s = splsched();
    758 	curcpu()->ci_schedstate.spc_flags |= SPCF_RUNNING;
    759 	splx(s);
    760 
    761 	/* Boot the secondary processors. */
    762 	for (CPU_INFO_FOREACH(cii, ci)) {
    763 		uvm_cpu_attach(ci);
    764 	}
    765 	mp_online = true;
    766 #if defined(MULTIPROCESSOR)
    767 	cpu_boot_secondary_processors();
    768 #endif
    769 
    770 	/* Setup the runqueues and scheduler. */
    771 	runq_init();
    772 	synch_init();
    773 
    774 	/*
    775 	 * Bus scans can make it appear as if the system has paused, so
    776 	 * twiddle constantly while config_interrupts() jobs are running.
    777 	 */
    778 	config_twiddle_fn(NULL);
    779 
    780 	/*
    781 	 * Create threads to call back and finish configuration for
    782 	 * devices that want interrupts enabled.
    783 	 */
    784 	config_create_interruptthreads();
    785 }
    786 
    787 static void
    788 configure3(void)
    789 {
    790 
    791 	/*
    792 	 * Create threads to call back and finish configuration for
    793 	 * devices that want the mounted root file system.
    794 	 */
    795 	config_create_mountrootthreads();
    796 
    797 	/* Get the threads going and into any sleeps before continuing. */
    798 	yield();
    799 }
    800 
    801 static void
    802 rootconf_handle_wedges(void)
    803 {
    804 	struct disklabel label;
    805 	struct partition *p;
    806 	struct vnode *vp;
    807 	daddr_t startblk;
    808 	uint64_t nblks;
    809 	device_t dev;
    810 	int error;
    811 
    812 	if (booted_nblks) {
    813 		/*
    814 		 * bootloader passed geometry
    815 		 */
    816 		dev      = booted_device;
    817 		startblk = booted_startblk;
    818 		nblks    = booted_nblks;
    819 
    820 		/*
    821 		 * keep booted_device and booted_partition
    822 		 * in case the kernel doesn't identify a wedge
    823 		 */
    824 	} else {
    825 		/*
    826 		 * bootloader passed partition number
    827 		 *
    828 		 * We cannot ask the partition device directly when it is
    829 		 * covered by a wedge. Instead we look up the geometry in
    830 		 * the disklabel.
    831 		 */
    832 		vp = opendisk(booted_device);
    833 
    834 		if (vp == NULL)
    835 			return;
    836 
    837 		error = VOP_IOCTL(vp, DIOCGDINFO, &label, FREAD, NOCRED);
    838 		VOP_CLOSE(vp, FREAD, NOCRED);
    839 		vput(vp);
    840 		if (error)
    841 			return;
    842 
    843 		KASSERT(booted_partition >= 0
    844 			&& booted_partition < MAXPARTITIONS);
    845 
    846 		p = &label.d_partitions[booted_partition];
    847 
    848 		dev      = booted_device;
    849 		startblk = p->p_offset;
    850 		nblks    = p->p_size;
    851 	}
    852 
    853 	dev = dkwedge_find_partition(dev, startblk, nblks);
    854 	if (dev != NULL) {
    855 		booted_device = dev;
    856 		booted_partition = 0;
    857 	}
    858 }
    859 
    860 void
    861 rootconf(void)
    862 {
    863 	if (booted_device != NULL)
    864 		rootconf_handle_wedges();
    865 
    866 	setroot(booted_device, booted_partition);
    867 }
    868 
    869 static void
    870 check_console(struct lwp *l)
    871 {
    872 	struct vnode *vp;
    873 	int error;
    874 
    875 	error = namei_simple_kernel("/dev/console",
    876 				NSM_FOLLOW_NOEMULROOT, &vp);
    877 	if (error == 0)
    878 		vrele(vp);
    879 	else if (error == ENOENT)
    880 		printf("warning: no /dev/console\n");
    881 	else
    882 		printf("warning: lookup /dev/console: error %d\n", error);
    883 }
    884 
    885 /*
    886  * List of paths to try when searching for "init".
    887  */
    888 static const char * const initpaths[] = {
    889 	"/sbin/init",
    890 	"/sbin/oinit",
    891 	"/sbin/init.bak",
    892 	"/rescue/init",
    893 	NULL,
    894 };
    895 
    896 /*
    897  * Start the initial user process; try exec'ing each pathname in "initpaths".
    898  * The program is invoked with one argument containing the boot flags.
    899  */
    900 static void
    901 start_init(void *arg)
    902 {
    903 	struct lwp *l = arg;
    904 	struct proc *p = l->l_proc;
    905 	vaddr_t addr;
    906 	struct sys_execve_args /* {
    907 		syscallarg(const char *) path;
    908 		syscallarg(char * const *) argp;
    909 		syscallarg(char * const *) envp;
    910 	} */ args;
    911 	int options, i, error;
    912 	register_t retval[2];
    913 	char flags[4], *flagsp;
    914 	const char *path, *slash;
    915 	char *ucp, **uap, *arg0, *arg1, *argv[3];
    916 	char ipath[129];
    917 	int ipx, len;
    918 
    919 	/*
    920 	 * Now in process 1.
    921 	 */
    922 	strncpy(p->p_comm, "init", MAXCOMLEN);
    923 
    924 	/*
    925 	 * Wait for main() to tell us that it's safe to exec.
    926 	 */
    927 	mutex_enter(proc_lock);
    928 	while (start_init_exec == 0)
    929 		cv_wait(&lbolt, proc_lock);
    930 	mutex_exit(proc_lock);
    931 
    932 	/*
    933 	 * This is not the right way to do this.  We really should
    934 	 * hand-craft a descriptor onto /dev/console to hand to init,
    935 	 * but that's a _lot_ more work, and the benefit from this easy
    936 	 * hack makes up for the "good is the enemy of the best" effect.
    937 	 */
    938 	check_console(l);
    939 
    940 	/*
    941 	 * Need just enough stack to hold the faked-up "execve()" arguments.
    942 	 */
    943 	addr = (vaddr_t)STACK_ALLOC(USRSTACK, PAGE_SIZE);
    944 	if (uvm_map(&p->p_vmspace->vm_map, &addr, PAGE_SIZE,
    945 	    NULL, UVM_UNKNOWN_OFFSET, 0,
    946 	    UVM_MAPFLAG(UVM_PROT_RW, UVM_PROT_RW, UVM_INH_COPY,
    947 	    UVM_ADV_NORMAL,
    948 	    UVM_FLAG_FIXED|UVM_FLAG_OVERLAY|UVM_FLAG_COPYONW)) != 0)
    949 		panic("init: couldn't allocate argument space");
    950 	p->p_vmspace->vm_maxsaddr = (void *)STACK_MAX(addr, PAGE_SIZE);
    951 
    952 	ipx = 0;
    953 	while (1) {
    954 		if (boothowto & RB_ASKNAME) {
    955 			printf("init path");
    956 			if (initpaths[ipx])
    957 				printf(" (default %s)", initpaths[ipx]);
    958 			printf(": ");
    959 			len = cngetsn(ipath, sizeof(ipath)-1);
    960 			if (len == 4 && strcmp(ipath, "halt") == 0) {
    961 				cpu_reboot(RB_HALT, NULL);
    962 			} else if (len == 6 && strcmp(ipath, "reboot") == 0) {
    963 				cpu_reboot(0, NULL);
    964 #if defined(DDB)
    965 			} else if (len == 3 && strcmp(ipath, "ddb") == 0) {
    966 				console_debugger();
    967 				continue;
    968 #endif
    969 			} else if (len > 0 && ipath[0] == '/') {
    970 				ipath[len] = '\0';
    971 				path = ipath;
    972 			} else if (len == 0 && initpaths[ipx] != NULL) {
    973 				path = initpaths[ipx++];
    974 			} else {
    975 				printf("use absolute path, ");
    976 #if defined(DDB)
    977 				printf("\"ddb\", ");
    978 #endif
    979 				printf("\"halt\", or \"reboot\"\n");
    980 				continue;
    981 			}
    982 		} else {
    983 			if ((path = initpaths[ipx++]) == NULL) {
    984 				ipx = 0;
    985 				boothowto |= RB_ASKNAME;
    986 				continue;
    987 			}
    988 		}
    989 
    990 		ucp = (char *)USRSTACK;
    991 
    992 		/*
    993 		 * Construct the boot flag argument.
    994 		 */
    995 		flagsp = flags;
    996 		*flagsp++ = '-';
    997 		options = 0;
    998 
    999 		if (boothowto & RB_SINGLE) {
   1000 			*flagsp++ = 's';
   1001 			options = 1;
   1002 		}
   1003 #ifdef notyet
   1004 		if (boothowto & RB_FASTBOOT) {
   1005 			*flagsp++ = 'f';
   1006 			options = 1;
   1007 		}
   1008 #endif
   1009 
   1010 		/*
   1011 		 * Move out the flags (arg 1), if necessary.
   1012 		 */
   1013 		if (options != 0) {
   1014 			*flagsp++ = '\0';
   1015 			i = flagsp - flags;
   1016 #ifdef DEBUG
   1017 			aprint_normal("init: copying out flags `%s' %d\n", flags, i);
   1018 #endif
   1019 			arg1 = STACK_ALLOC(ucp, i);
   1020 			ucp = STACK_MAX(arg1, i);
   1021 			if ((error = copyout((void *)flags, arg1, i)) != 0)
   1022 				goto copyerr;
   1023 		} else
   1024 			arg1 = NULL;
   1025 
   1026 		/*
   1027 		 * Move out the file name (also arg 0).
   1028 		 */
   1029 		i = strlen(path) + 1;
   1030 #ifdef DEBUG
   1031 		aprint_normal("init: copying out path `%s' %d\n", path, i);
   1032 #else
   1033 		if (boothowto & RB_ASKNAME || path != initpaths[0])
   1034 			printf("init: trying %s\n", path);
   1035 #endif
   1036 		arg0 = STACK_ALLOC(ucp, i);
   1037 		ucp = STACK_MAX(arg0, i);
   1038 		if ((error = copyout(path, arg0, i)) != 0)
   1039 			goto copyerr;
   1040 
   1041 		/*
   1042 		 * Move out the arg pointers.
   1043 		 */
   1044 		ucp = (void *)STACK_ALIGN(ucp, STACK_ALIGNBYTES);
   1045 		uap = (char **)STACK_ALLOC(ucp, sizeof(argv));
   1046 		SCARG(&args, path) = arg0;
   1047 		SCARG(&args, argp) = uap;
   1048 		SCARG(&args, envp) = NULL;
   1049 		slash = strrchr(path, '/');
   1050 
   1051 		argv[0] = slash ? arg0 + (slash + 1 - path) : arg0;
   1052 		argv[1] = arg1;
   1053 		argv[2] = NULL;
   1054 		if ((error = copyout(argv, uap, sizeof(argv))) != 0)
   1055 			goto copyerr;
   1056 
   1057 		/*
   1058 		 * Now try to exec the program.  If it can't for any reason
   1059 		 * other than it doesn't exist, complain.
   1060 		 */
   1061 		error = sys_execve(l, &args, retval);
   1062 		if (error == 0 || error == EJUSTRETURN) {
   1063 			KERNEL_UNLOCK_LAST(l);
   1064 			return;
   1065 		}
   1066 		printf("exec %s: error %d\n", path, error);
   1067 	}
   1068 	printf("init: not found\n");
   1069 	panic("no init");
   1070 copyerr:
   1071 	panic("copyout %d", error);
   1072 }
   1073 
   1074 /*
   1075  * calculate cache size (in bytes) from physmem and vsize.
   1076  */
   1077 vaddr_t
   1078 calc_cache_size(vsize_t vsize, int pct, int va_pct)
   1079 {
   1080 	paddr_t t;
   1081 
   1082 	/* XXX should consider competing cache if any */
   1083 	/* XXX should consider submaps */
   1084 	t = (uintmax_t)physmem * pct / 100 * PAGE_SIZE;
   1085 	if (vsize != 0) {
   1086 		vsize = (uintmax_t)vsize * va_pct / 100;
   1087 		if (t > vsize) {
   1088 			t = vsize;
   1089 		}
   1090 	}
   1091 	return t;
   1092 }
   1093 
   1094 /*
   1095  * Print the system start up banner.
   1096  *
   1097  * - Print a limited banner if AB_SILENT.
   1098  * - Always send normal banner to the log.
   1099  */
   1100 #define MEM_PBUFSIZE	sizeof("99999 MB")
   1101 
   1102 void
   1103 banner(void)
   1104 {
   1105 	static char notice[] = " Notice: this software is "
   1106 	    "protected by copyright";
   1107 	char pbuf[81];
   1108 	void (*pr)(const char *, ...) __printflike(1, 2);
   1109 	int i;
   1110 
   1111 	if ((boothowto & AB_SILENT) != 0) {
   1112 		snprintf(pbuf, sizeof(pbuf), "%s %s (%s)",
   1113 		    ostype, osrelease, kernel_ident);
   1114 		printf_nolog("%s", pbuf);
   1115 		for (i = 80 - strlen(pbuf) - sizeof(notice); i > 0; i--)
   1116 			printf(" ");
   1117 		printf_nolog("%s\n", notice);
   1118 		pr = aprint_normal;
   1119 	} else {
   1120 		pr = printf;
   1121 	}
   1122 
   1123 	memset(pbuf, 0, sizeof(pbuf));
   1124 	(*pr)("%s%s", copyright, version);
   1125 	format_bytes(pbuf, MEM_PBUFSIZE, ctob((uint64_t)physmem));
   1126 	(*pr)("total memory = %s\n", pbuf);
   1127 	format_bytes(pbuf, MEM_PBUFSIZE, ctob((uint64_t)uvmexp.free));
   1128 	(*pr)("avail memory = %s\n", pbuf);
   1129 }
   1130